Chess Piece Names and Moves: A Parent’s Guide to Teaching Chess

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By In The Playroom

As a mum who loves playing chess with my kids, I can’t wait to share my passion for this age-old game with you. It’s so fulfilling to see my little ones develop their strategic thinking and decision-making skills, and it never ceases to amaze me how quickly they learn to challenge me on the chess board.

how to play chess a guide to the chess piece names and moves

Whether it’s a rainy day indoors or a quiet evening together, chess is a fantastic way to bond with your children while teaching them valuable life skills. In this guide, I’ll walk you through the ins and outs of the game, from chess piece names to their moves and everything in between. So, grab your chess set, and let’s get started!

kids playing chess

Chess is a strategic board game enjoyed by millions of people worldwide. The objective is simple: to checkmate your opponent’s king. This guide will provide a detailed explanation of the different types of chess pieces, their moves, and special rules.

By the end, you will be equipped to teach your child about this captivating game.

The Typical Chess Set and Board

A standard chess set consists of 32 unique chess pieces: 16 white pieces and 16 black pieces. The chess board is made up of 64 squares, with alternating light squares and dark squares. Each player has eight pieces on their first rank (the row closest to them) and eight pawns on their second rank.

chess board set up

Names of the Chess Pieces

The names of the chess pieces are inspired by the royal court and foot soldiers of medieval times. The different pieces include:

names of the chess pieces
  1. King
  2. Queen
  3. Bishop (two per side)
  4. Knight (two per side)
  5. Rook (two per side)
  6. Pawn (eight per side)

These pieces have different names in different languages, but their roles and relative values remain consistent.

chess board

King (Most Important Piece)

The king is the most important piece in a game of chess. If a player’s king is threatened with capture (in check), they must make a move to eliminate the threat. The king can move one square in any direction (horizontally, vertically, or diagonally). The objective of the game is to place the opponent’s king in checkmate, a position where the king is in check and there are no legal moves to escape the threat.

chess piece king

Queen (Most Powerful Chess Piece)

The queen is the most powerful chess piece, the only piece capable of moving any number of vacant squares horizontally, vertically, or diagonally. which is why she is generally seen as the most valuable chess piece, of course aside from the king The queen can capture any enemy piece that it encounters on its path. At the beginning of the game, each player has one queen, with the white queen starting on a white square and the black queen on a dark square.

chess piece queen


Each player has two bishops: a light-squared bishop and a dark-squared bishop. The bishop moves diagonally across any number of vacant squares. Bishops are considered minor pieces, with a point value slightly lower than rooks and knights.

chess piece bishop


The knight is the only chess piece that can “jump” over other pieces on the board. The knight moves in an L-shape, either two squares horizontally and one square vertically, or one square horizontally and two squares vertically. Knights are considered minor pieces and are often used as the first line of defense in the opening moves of a game.

chess piece knight


Each player has two rooks, which are considered major pieces. The rook moves horizontally or vertically across any number of vacant squares. Rooks are especially powerful when they control open positions (lines with no pawns or pieces blocking their path).

chess piece rook

Pawn (Weakest Chess Piece)

The pawn is the weakest chess piece, but it is also essential for controlling the center of the board and capturing opponent’s pieces. On its first move, a pawn can advance one or two squares forward (but not diagonally). After its initial move, a pawn can only advance one square forward at a time. Pawns capture enemy pieces by moving one square diagonally forward. If a pawn reaches the opposite side of the board (the seventh rank for white pawns or the second rank for black pawns), it can be promoted to any other piece (except a king), usually a queen.

chess pawns

The pieces can look slightly different from chess set to chess set, but once you’re familiar with all of the chess pieces, their names and roles you will be able to work it out easily despite any variation.

Special Moves and Rules

Now that we’ve looked at the names of chess pieces and the moves that different types of pieces can make, we can go beyond the basic chess rules and look a little deeper so you can help you kids develop into the best players.


Castling is a special move involving the king and one of the rooks. There are two types of castling: kingside castling and queenside castling. In both cases, the king moves two squares towards the rook, and the rook moves to the square next to the king on the opposite side. Castling is only allowed under certain conditions: neither the king nor the rook involved can have moved before, the squares between the king and rook must be vacant, and the king cannot be in check or move through a square that is attacked by an opponent’s piece.

En Passant

This special rule applies to pawn captures. If a pawn advances two squares on its first move and lands beside an opponent’s pawn, the opponent’s pawn has the option to capture it “en passant.” This capture must be done immediately on the next move, or the right to capture is lost. The capturing pawn moves diagonally to the square behind the advanced pawn, as if it had only moved one square forward.

Pawn Promotion

As mentioned earlier, when a pawn reaches the opposite side of the board, it can be promoted to any other piece (except a king), typically a queen. This promotion can change the dynamics of the game significantly.

playing chess

General Strategies and Tips For Your Chess Game

Control the Center

Good chess players aim to control the center of the board, as it allows their pieces to have maximum mobility and influence over the game. Pawns and minor pieces (knights and bishops) are often used to establish control in the opening phase.

Develop Pieces

At the beginning of the game, it’s crucial to develop your pieces, meaning you should move them from their starting positions to squares where they can be more active and effective. Knights and bishops should be moved out first, followed by the major pieces (rooks and queen).

Protect Your King

Keep your king safe by placing it behind a wall of pawns or by castling. Avoid exposing your king to threats or moving it unnecessarily.

Use All Your Pieces

Try to utilize all of your pieces efficiently, coordinating them to create threats and control key squares. Avoid leaving any pieces inactive or “sleeping” in the corners of the board.

Understand Piece Values

Knowing the relative value of each piece can help you make informed decisions when capturing or exchanging pieces.

chess piece values

Here’s a general guideline:

  • Pawn: 1 point
  • Knight: 3 points
  • Bishop: 3 points
  • Rook: 5 points
  • Queen: 9 points

Remember, these values are not set in stone, and sometimes the position and specific situation can make a piece more valuable than its assigned point value.

playing chess

And there you have it! Now you’re well-equipped to introduce your kids to the exciting world of chess.

Teaching your child how to play chess can be a fun and rewarding experience. This guide has covered the names of the chess pieces, their moves, special rules, and general strategies. By practicing these concepts and playing regularly, your child will improve their skills and understanding of this fascinating game.

Remember, the most important thing is to have fun and enjoy the quality time spent with your children. I know firsthand how satisfying it is to watch your kids grow into formidable opponents, giving you a run for your money on the chess board. Keep playing, keep learning, and before you know it, you’ll be sharing the joy of chess with the next generation of grandmasters.

Happy playing!

boy playing chess
Little boy plays chees at home interier. Figures on a chessboard. Game of chess.

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Anna Marikar, mum of four and seasoned blogger, has spent over a decade sharing her parenting journey and passion for kid-friendly crafts and free printables.
Her easy-to-follow craft ideas and practical parenting advice have transformed In The Playroom into a cherished resource for parents.

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